Nor does descriptive representation equal substantive representation.Women are not a homogeneous group: their interests and experiences are shaped by social, racial, and economic hierarchies.
Nor does descriptive representation equal substantive representation.Women are not a homogeneous group: their interests and experiences are shaped by social, racial, and economic hierarchies.Tags: Thesis On Shape Memory AlloysWriting Dissertation With Microsoft WordParenthetical References In Research PapersGov.Uk Business PlanRiver Pollution Essay SpmTeam Dynamics Thesis StatementMla Style Essay LayoutHome Daycare Business Plan SampleEssays Comparing Heart Darkness Apocalypse NowMargaret Atwood Surfacing Essay
While many countries have made rapid progress in this domain, the United States has not kept pace: when it comes to women’s representation in national legislatures, the United States’ rank has sunk from 41 in the world in 1997 to 101 in 2017.
The comparison with Western European democracies—similar to the United States along most socioeconomic and democratic indicators—is particularly revealing.
Female politicians hail from radically different backgrounds and bring varied ideological perspectives to bear on their work.
Yet any democratic system benefits from having people with diverse life experiences and perspectives represented in government—and from drawing on the full array of talent and skills in the population.
In this context, European reform experiences provide useful comparative insights.
In contrast to the United States, the debate over women’s political representation in Europe has focused less on the supply of female candidates and more on persistent structural barriers that work against women’s political participation.And in recent months, the #Me Too movement has sparked an unprecedented national debate on harassment and abuses that undermine women’s professional advancement, including in the political sphere.The movement has also led to renewed calls for more women in positions of power.Activists for gender equality in Europe have generally prioritized lobbying for institutional reforms, such as party targets and quotas, over incremental attitudinal and behavioral changes. Not all of these lessons are easily transferable to the United States.Specific features of Western European democracies—such as proportional representation rules, public election financing, and party-driven candidate selection—have facilitated such efforts and provided a more favorable context for women’s political advancement than the U. A transatlantic comparison nevertheless highlights several key areas for policy change that could complement current efforts to train and support women aspirants and deepen the debate over political equality in the United States.Women currently hold 19.8 percent of 535 seats in the U. The same gap in representation also extends to the state and local levels: women hold only six governorships, about one-quarter of state legislative seats and statewide elective executive offices, and one-fifth of mayoral positions in the hundred largest U. Women of color now hold elected office at historically unprecedented levels—of the 105 women serving in the 115th Congress, 36.2 percent are women of color. In 1990, Democrats and Republicans fielded female House candidates at roughly similar rates.Yet by 2012, Democrats accounted for 70 percent of the women running for election to the House.A May 2017 survey showed that while many Democratic women have been politically energized, men are still significantly more likely to have considered running for office or taken concrete steps to do so ahead of the 20 elections.These findings suggest that closing the gender gap in U. politics in the near term may require more comprehensive and ambitious action.Over the past year, record numbers of women reached out to mobilizing organizations like the political action committee (PAC) called EMILY’s List and expressed their interest in running for office.Hundreds of thousands of women joined women’s marches around the country to demonstrate for gender equality.