It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and transitioned into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery.Tags: 20th Century Research Paper TopicsPersuasive Essay On The EconomyEssay Of Hamlet By ShakespeareShort Essay On Positive AttitudeDissertation Employee RetentionHorror Classification Essays
The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, High, and Late Middle Ages.
Population decline, counterurbanisation, collapse of centralized authority, invasions, and mass migrations of tribes, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages.
The theology of Thomas Aquinas, the paintings of Giotto, the poetry of Dante and Chaucer, the travels of Marco Polo, and the Gothic architecture of cathedrals such as Chartres are among the outstanding achievements toward the end of this period and into the Late Middle Ages.
The Late Middle Ages was marked by difficulties and calamities including famine, plague, and war, which significantly diminished the population of Europe; between 13, the Black Death killed about a third of Europeans.
Leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodisation in his History of the Florentine People (1442), with a middle period "between the fall of the Roman Empire and the revival of city life sometime in late eleventh and twelfth centuries". Depending on the context, events such as the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453, Christopher Columbus's first voyage to the Americas in 1492, or the Protestant Reformation in 1517 are sometimes used.
Historians from Romance-speaking countries tend to divide the Middle Ages into two parts: an earlier "High" and later "Low" period.Manorialism, the organisation of peasants into villages that owed rent and labour services to the nobles, and feudalism, the political structure whereby knights and lower-status nobles owed military service to their overlords in return for the right to rent from lands and manors, were two of the ways society was organised in the High Middle Ages.The Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims.The settlement did not go smoothly, and when Roman officials mishandled the situation, the Goths began to raid and plunder.The Migration Period began, when various peoples, initially largely Germanic peoples, moved across Europe.Kings became the heads of centralised nation-states, reducing crime and violence but making the ideal of a unified Christendom more distant.Intellectual life was marked by scholasticism, a philosophy that emphasised joining faith to reason, and by the founding of universities.Although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete.The still-sizeable Byzantine Empire, Rome's direct continuation, survived in the Eastern Mediterranean and remained a major power.The empire's law code, the Corpus Juris Civilis or "Code of Justinian", was rediscovered in Northern Italy in 1070 and became widely admired later in the Middle Ages.In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions.