Following the MD, the next professional doctorate, the Juris Doctor (J.
D.), was established by the University of Chicago in 1902.
Today, a research doctorate (Ph D) or its equivalent (as defined in the US by the NSF) is generally a prerequisite for an academic career, although many recipients do not work in academia.
Professional doctorates developed in the United States from the 19th century onward.
Since the Middle Ages, the number and types of doctorates awarded by universities has proliferated throughout the world. While a doctorate usually entitles one to be addressed as "doctor", use of the title varies widely, depending on the type and the associated occupation.
Research doctorates are awarded in recognition of academic research that is publishable, at least in principle, in a peer-reviewed academic journal.
These doctorates are now less common in some countries and are often awarded honoris causa.
The habilitation is still used for academic recruitment purposes in many countries within the EU, and involves either a new long thesis (a second book) or a portfolio of research publications.
However it took a long time to be accepted, not replacing the Bachelor of Laws (LLB) until the 1960s, by which time the LLB was generally taken as a graduate degree.
Notably, the curriculum for the JD and LLB were identical, with the degree being renamed as a doctorate, and it (like the MD) was not equivalent to the Ph D, raising criticism that it was "not a 'true Doctorate When professional doctorates were established in the UK in the late 1980s and early 1990s, they did not follow the US model but were instead set up as research degrees at the same level as Ph Ds but with some taught components and a professional concentration The older-style doctorates, now usually called higher doctorates in the United Kingdom, take much longer to complete, since candidates must show themselves to be leading experts in their subjects.