Nkrumah later wrote and railed against what he called neo-colonialism.
In South Africa, the freedom charter of 1956 promised a revolutionary economic overhaul of the apartheid system.
Securing the nation Well, in the negotiated settlement that led to liberation, compromises had to be made. Mandela had to secure the nation, and create stability, otherwise we would have no country to speak of.
One should recollect the vicious contestation and violence that wracked the country in the run-up to the first democratic elections in April 1994.
” When Anton Lembede, and others formed the ANC Youth League in which Tata Mandela cut his teeth, their perspectives were Africanist.
With time the ANC adopted a middle ground of non-racialism. ’ Is it a geographical concept or a construct of skin colour? Many people argue that whites have never been conflicted as to who they are.There were 15 expropriation laws since 1913 to forcefully seize black land and property, as well as restrictive laws to stunt black economic development in terms of space and skills; and mental colonisation using education and media.Many have asked how Tata Mandela sought to reverse all that without resorting to forceful redress.One should also remember that black liberation was a potpourri of disparate revolutionaries, from internal and external exile.Even internally you had different persuasions and formations. You needed a political genius like him to reconcile all these forces that were tearing one another apart, otherwise the result would have been carnage.What did the Afrikaners, who had developed a separate white identity, do?They built parallel institutions: banks, parastatals, educational institutions, hospitals, businesses etc, while still co-operating with the English as fellow whites.To do that there had to be the reconciliation of everyone, and that included wearing a Springbok jersey in the heart of Afrikanerdom at the Rugby World Cup in 1995.One should also not forget his tireless efforts in Zululand to bring the separatist Inkatha Freedom Party to accept the idea of a unified country. When his magic was done, he quit after one five-year term in office, unlike most leaders of our times, and handed the economic redress baton to his successors.The question many ask is if Mandela at the time of liberation, had an economic plan that would banish economic apartheid?Tata Madiba was well aware that economic power had been consolidated by a white minority. It was the same challenge Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana and most post-independent African leaders faced.