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It was first invented when Aristotle (a pre-Christian philosopher) stated that “the series must start from something, since nothing can come from nothing” because of this Aristotle proposed that there must be a craftsman for the universe, he called this the ‘prime-mover’ whereas Plato named this the ‘demi-urge’.Aristotle observed that everything in the universe changes form a state of potentiality to a state of actuality.
Now it is not possible that the same thing should be at once in actuality and potentiality in the same respect, but only in different respects.
For what is actually hot cannot simultaneously be potentially hot; but it is simultaneously potentially cold.
An example of this is dominoes, there has to be the efficient cause of something knocking the first domino over, an intermediate cause of the next dominoes being knocked in order for the ultimate cause to happen, which in this case is the falling over of the last domino.
Aquinas’ third way was contingency, this is the idea that everything that exists relies on something else for its existence, for example a child relies on its parents for its existence, and they rely on their parents.
This infinite regress is not possible so there must be a point where we reach a necessary being, something which has no cause and therefore can end the infinite regress of cause, Aquinas argues that this is God.
William Craig is a modern philosopher who is still alive today, he edited the Kalam Argument, this argument in its basic form is that everything that began to exist must have a cause, the world began to exist, therefore t must have a cause and this cause must be God.Therefore he had no time for the ontological argument, but reconstructed the cosmological argument. On this basis, Thomas gave five arguments for God’s existence; but the first four are almost identical, and the fifth is so little different, that only the first will be reproduced here: The first and more manifest way is the argument from motion.To refer again to the question of knowledge, the difference between these two arguments is basically a difference in epistemology: For Augustine it was not necessary to start with sensory experience, for one could go directly from the soul to God; but Aquinas wrote, “The human intellect .... It is certain and evident to our senses that in the world some things are in motion.is at first like a clean tablet on which nothing is written” (Summa Theologica I, Q:97, 2). Now, whatever is moved is moved by another, for nothing can be moved except it is in potentiality to that towards which it is moved; whereas a thing moves inasmuch as it is in act.For motion is nothing else than the reduction of something from potentiality to actuality.Craig’s Kalam Argument part 1 seeks to prove that the world cannot be an actual infinite as if this was true the present could not exist as you can’t add additions to an actual infinite.Therefore, the world must be finite, meaning that t must have a cause, and this Craig argues, is God.Thomas intended it to be a conclusive demonstration that God exists.It is not a collection of evidences that make it plausible to believe in God.Aquinas’ second way is cause, this argues that nothing can cause itself as it must have existed before it did, to have caused or created itself, which is impossible.Aquinas argues that nothing in motion can cause itself and therefore there must be an uncaused cause, that didn’t cause itself and this is God.