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This article advocates a more comprehensive understanding of job performance and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) than that employed by earlier researchers on those topics.Using the intellectual heritage of the word “citizenship” from political philosophy and related disciplines, OCB is positioned as the organizational equivalent of citizen responsibilities, of which there are three categories: obedience, loyalty, and political participation.We recognize that DMSO is primarily a policy-making body and that, as an organization, it does not sponsor or execute specific modeling projects.
Between these extremes there is a need for data derived from high-fidelity simulations and war games and for data from laboratory analogs to military tasks.
Examples of high-fidelity data of value to the modeler are communication logs and mission scenarios.
It is not enough simply to advocate the collection of these data.
There also must be procedures to ensure that the data are codified and made available in a form that can be utilized by all the relevant communities—from military staffs who need to have confidence in the models to those in the academic sphere who will develop the next generation of models.
Together, as illustrated in Figure 13.1, these initiatives constitute a program plan for human behavior representation development for many years to come.
Work on achieving these short-, intermediate-, and long-term goals should begin concurrently.Some of these data, such as communication logs from old war games, already exist; however, they need to be categorized, indexed, and made generally available.Individual model and theory builders should be able to find out what data exist and obtain access to specific data on request.Examples of salient field research are studies of the effects of fatigue on troop movement speeds and the gathering of quantitative data on the communication patterns within and across echelons in typical joint task force command and control exercises.Examples of laboratory work that has importance for real-world contexts are studies of the orientation of behavior to coordinated acoustic and visual stimuli and studies of the relationship between risk taking and information uncertainty.The panel recommends that these efforts proceed in accordance with four themes, listed below in order of priority and discussed in more detail in the following subsections: As indicated on the left of Figure 13.1, the panel has concluded that all levels of model development depend on the sustained collection and dissemination of human behavior data.Figure 13.2 expands on this requirement by elaborating the range of data collection needs, which extend from real-world field data to laboratory studies of basic human capacities.Finally, the advantages of using OCB as a global measure of individual behavior at work are defended.The area of human behavior representation is at least as important to the mission of the Defense Modeling and Simulation Office (DMSO) as the area of modeling of the battlefield environment, yet at the time of this study, human behavior representation was receiving only a fraction of the resources assigned to modeling of the environment.For the intermediate term (as shown in the center of the figure), we believe DMSO should extend the scope of useful task analysis and encourage sustained model development in focused areas.And for the long term (as shown on the right hand side of the figure), we believe DMSO should advocate theory development and behavioral research that can lead to future generations of models of human and organizational behavior.