Peer review quality and selectivity standards vary greatly from journal to journal, publisher to publisher, and field to field.Most established academic disciplines have their own journals and other outlets for publication, although many academic journals are somewhat interdisciplinary, and publish work from several distinct fields or subfields.These are the articles and the peer review process.
Investment analysts, however, have been skeptical of the value added by for-profit publishers, as exemplified by a 2005 Deutsche Bank analysis which stated that "we believe the publisher adds relatively little value to the publishing process...
We are simply observing that if the process really were as complex, costly and value-added as the publishers protest that it is, 40% margins wouldn't be available." The university budget cuts have reduced library budgets and reduced subsidies to university-affiliated publishers.
This is particularly true for the most popular journals where the number of accepted articles often outnumbers the space for printing.
Due to this, many academics self-archive a 'pre-print' copy of their paper for free download from their personal or institutional website.
Academic publishing is the subfield of publishing which distributes academic research and scholarship.
Most academic work is published in academic journal article, book or thesis form.Academic publishing is undergoing major changes, as it makes the transition from the print to the electronic format.Business models are different in the electronic environment.Since the early 1990s, licensing of electronic resources, particularly journals, has been very common.An important trend, particularly with respect to journals in the sciences, is open access via the Internet.Many open or closed journals fund their operations without such fees.The Internet has facilitated open access self-archiving, in which authors themselves make a copy of their published articles available free for all on the web.The decline in contested claims for priority in research discoveries can be credited to the increasing acceptance of the publication of papers in modern academic journals, with estimates suggesting that around 50 million journal articles have been published since the first appearance of the Philosophical Transactions.The Royal Society was steadfast in its not-yet-popular belief that science could only move forward through a transparent and open exchange of ideas backed by experimental evidence.The Journal des sçavans (later spelled Journal des savants), established by Denis de Sallo, was the earliest academic journal published in Europe.Its content included obituaries of famous men, church history, and legal reports.