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The quantitative examination demonstrated positive results as follows: (a) adding the optional overall quality dimension improved the reliability of our rubric, (b) the overall quality dimension worked well even if it was used alone, (c) our rubric and the ETS holistic rubric overlapped moderately as L2 summary writing assessments, and (d) the two paraphrasing dimensions covered similar but different aspects of paraphrasing.However, the quantitative analysis using the generalizability theory (G theory) simulated that the reliability (generalizability coefficients) of the rubric was not high when the number of raters decreased.In this study, we focus on the development of tools that can be utilized in L2 summary writing instruction in an EFL classroom context with a particular focus on the assessment of summary writing by Japanese EFL university students.
The examination especially focused on a newly added, optional overall quality dimension and two paraphrasing dimensions: paraphrase (quantity) and paraphrase (quality).
Six teacher raters evaluated 16 summaries written by Japanese EFL university student writers using our new rubric.
Among them, one central skill relevant to summary writing is paraphrasing, which is also often used in academic writing in general.
According to Hirvela and Du () investigated summary writing operations used by English as a second language (ESL) university students where the performances of high- and low-proficiency students were compared.
In our research project, we have developed a scoring rubric for a second language (L2) summary writing for English as a foreign language (EFL) students in Japanese universities.
This study aimed to examine the applicability of our five-dimensional rubric, which features both analytic and holistic assessments, to classrooms in the EFL context.In particular, how to replace a certain word with its umbrella term or synonym can be influenced by the learners’ L1.Another issue related to paraphrasing is the phenomenon of , p. “Patchwriting occurs when a writer copies text from a source and changes only some of the words and grammar” (p. This often happens among novice writers and is seen as a developmental phase of paraphrasing attempts (Pecorari, ).71) or complete other types of assignments that incorporate various kinds of sources into their writing.Summary writing is an integrated writing task, and it is understood as a reading-to-write task.Hence, teachers need to be aware that this inadequate manner of paraphrasing occurs regardless of the students’ intention and that it takes time until students fully understand and become accustomed to paraphrasing.Thus, paraphrasing plays a vital role in summary writing; however, this skill is considerably difficult to master and teach due to its complex characteristics and the influence of writers’ cultural and linguistic backgrounds.In performance assessment (e.g., L2 writing assessment), scoring rubrics are generally divided into two types: holistic rubrics and analytic rubrics (Bacha, ) and are often used for large-scale assessments such as placement tests or high-stakes examinations.Advantages of holistic assessments are its practicality and cost-effectiveness, as it takes less time for raters to complete the assessment, thereby reducing labor costs, compared to analytic assessments (Bacha, ).They demonstrated that the low-proficiency group copied information from the original text more frequently than the high-proficiency group and that students in both groups neither combined information across paragraphs nor invented topic sentences by using their own words.Similarly, Keck () examined how textual borrowing affects lexical diversity when learners borrow words from sources in integrated reading-based writing tasks.