Review Of Related Literature About School Bullying

Review Of Related Literature About School Bullying-18
First, the majority of prior research has focused on bullies, types of bullying, and related prevention/intervention strategies.Second, many studies have focused on physically aggressive bullying and victimization while ignoring psychologically/emotionally aggressive victimization, despite the fact that many children are known to be bullied not only physically, but also psychologically/emotionally [3, 23].Those who bullied others scored higher on the peer relationship problems scale (p=0.001) [1].

Keywords: Cyber-bully; Teenagers; Effects; Perpetrators; Victims Cyber-bullying interactions are usually defined as “repeated, harmful interactions which are deliberately offensive, humiliating, threatening, and power assertive, and are enacted using electronic equipment, such as cell (mobile) phones or the Internet, by one or more individuals towards another” [1].

It might be a continuation of real life bullying but can also exist on its own [2].

A thorough search of medical literature was conducted on Pubmed, Google scholar and Scopus databases.

The key Me SH and non-Me SH terms were “Cyber-bully”, “teenagers”, “Effects”, “Perpetrators” and “Victims”.

Third, while schools have attempted to create safer environments by implementing a variety of preventive strategies and programs, such as the use of school security technologies (e.g., metal detectors, and surveillance cameras), school security guards, and anti-school-bullying programs during the last decade, few studies have examined whether these preventive strategies and technologies have any significant effect on reducing bullying victimization [17, 22].

The current study, using a nationally representative sample of adolescents in the United States, takes a more holistic approach and addresses these limitations.Implications of these findings for school anti-bullying programs as well as directions for future research are discussed.In recent decades, school bullying and victimization, which continues to be a serious social and health problem in the United States, has received extraordinary levels of attention from the public, criminal justice practitioners, academicians, and educators [1–3].A significant number of empirical studies indicate that bullying and victimization is an increasing problem on school grounds and one that has negative consequences for both bullies and their victims [3–8].For example, the School Crime Supplement survey (2007) showed that 32 percent of students reported being bullied at school, while only 28 percent of students in 2005 reported being bullied [9]. [10] found that 75 percent of US public school principals indicated that schools reported one or more violent incidents to the police, and 25 percent of public schools reported school bullying on a daily/weekly basis.Yet these studies found that individual demographic factors (e.g., age, gender, and race) and school characteristics (e.g., presence of gangs at school, and police/school staff members’ supervision) are significantly related to victimization. [17] found that victims of school bullying are more likely to be younger and white and to report the presence of gangs in their schools.Most previous research on bullying, however, suffers from several limitations.Smith et al divided cyber-bullying in seven sub-categories, namely: text message bullying, picture/ video clip bullying, phone call bullying, email bullying, chat-room bullying, bullying through instant messaging (18%) and bullying via websites among which picture/video clip and phone call were perceived to have the most impact [3].Even though chat room, instant messaging and email bullying were perceived to have the least impact on the victim another study deems it most common among all (18% and 13.8%, respectively) [4].Primarily, the focus of the current study is to determine whether various school safety strategies, the school environment, and individual social demographic factors are significantly related to each of the school bullying victimization categories.It is hypothesized that students who attend schools where there is a heightened safety outlook (including school safety strategies for a more safe and protective school environment/climate) will have less incidents of victimization than schools that do not have such an environment.


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