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Further developments in the 1980s allowed evolutionary biologists to model more complex social dynamics (e.g., Axelrod and Hamilton, 1981; Maynard Smith, 1982; for a fuller treatment, see the entry on biological altruism).
If male aggression is genetically fixed and reproductively advantageous, critics argue, then male aggression seems to be a biological reality (and, perhaps, a biological ‘good’) about which we have little control.
This seems to be both politically dangerous and scientifically implausible.
The question, then, is this: Is Darwinian theory an appropriate framework for understanding human sociality?
Or ought we to adopt some kind of ‘disconnectionism,’ the view that human behavior is best studied apart from evolution?
Meanwhile, many sociobiology supporters, including Thornhill and Palmer (2000), maintain that rape is about sexual desire, and claim that the social sciences lack merit in their research on rape because their theories do not consider the evolutionary causes of human behaviour (p. As this essay will demonstrate, both cultural and evolutionary forces have been shown to have considerable effects on the occurrence of rape.
Therefore, I argue for an integration of both approaches in order to successfully understand and thus potentially prevent and eradicate rape.This notorious book outlines several possible human rape adaptations, virtually all of which concern reproductive strategies.The works of such authors have been criticized by the social sciences, including feminist academics like Susan Brownmiller, who claim that rape is not about sex, but power and domination (Thompson, 2009).In response to Christian conservative political action, some gay rights advocates have embraced a biological argument.The argument maintains that because homosexuality may have a biological basis, homosexuals should be protected from discrimination.In a series of theoretical papers in the 1960s and 70s, evolutionary biologists cleverly showed that natural selection would in fact favor behaviors that the reproductive fitness of their actors, provided that close relatives sufficiently benefit (Hamilton, 1964; see also Trivers, 1974).Those models were later expanded to show how altruistic behaviors could evolve among unrelated organisms within social groups (Trivers, 1971; Hamilton, 1972; Maynard Smith, 1974).Nevertheless, this survey reconstructs sociobiology in its best light, according to its .Consequently, criticism of sociobiology as it is actually practiced is not ignored or dismissed.Sociobiology has been less successful in its application to human behavior than in its application to non-human systems.According to many critics of human sociobiology, standard sociobiological models are inadequate to account for human behavior, because they ignore the contributions of the mind and culture.