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To date, most embryos used for the establishment of h ES cell lines have been spare embryos from IVF, but the creation of embryos specifically for deriving h ES cells is also under discussion.The most controversial variant of this is the transfer of a somatic cell‐nucleus from a patient to an enucleated oocyte (unfertilized egg) in order to produce h ES cells genetically identical to that patient for ‘autologous’ transplantation (so‐called ‘therapeutic’ cloning); this may prevent tissue rejection.
The question ‘Can these cells be isolated and used and, if so, under what conditions and restrictions’ is presently high on the political and ethical agenda, with policies and legislation being formulated in many countries to regulate their derivation.
The UK has been the first to pass a law governing the use of human embryos for stem cell research.
Later, there became available evidence of the existence of stem cells in virtually all organs of adult animals and humans, which allowed to distinguish embryonic stem cells (isolated from embryos at the blastocyst stage – a very early stage of development, when there is no tissue or organs) from regional stem cells (isolated from adult organs or organs of embryos at more later stages), which retain the properties of embryonic stem cells, as evidenced by the detected therein embryonic protein markers.
Stem cells can be isolated and grown in tissue culture.
Although h ES cells can form all somatic tissues, they cannot form all of the other ‘extraembryonic’ tissues necessary for complete development, such as the placenta and membranes, so that they cannot give rise to a complete new individual.
Stem Cell Research Paper
They are therefore distinct from the ‘totipotent’ fertilized oocyte and blastomere cells deriving from the first cleavage divisions.
As you may know, the nerve cells are losing the ability to reproduce at the earliest stages of neural differentiation (neuroblast stage). and Master’s writers only to provide students with professional research paper assistance at affordable rates.
However, stem cells begin to divide with subsequent differentiation into nerve or glial cells in response to various damages to the nervous tissues. Each customer will get a non-plagiarized paper with timely delivery.
However, in the 70s, Friendenstein and his colleagues discovered stem cells in the mesenchyme (stroma) of “adult” bone marrow, later they became known as stromal cells.
There is a very small number of stem cells in our body: in embryo, it is 1 cell per 10,000, and 1 cell per 8.5 million in aged people.