The theories of motivation maybe categorized according to their definitions and purpose but critical analysis reveal that they are all linked, they lead to serving satisfaction in employees.
The use of both content and process theories must be put into practice to motivate employees effectively.
There are three main theory categories, namely content theories, process theories and contemporary theories (Saif, Nawaz, Jan & Khan, 2012).
Generally speaking, these theories include Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, Herzberg’s motivator-hygiene (or two-factor) theory, Alderfer’s Existence, Relatedness and Growth theory, and Mc Clelland’s needs theory.
Keywords: Motivation, Job Satisfaction, Intrinsic, Extrinsic Theories of Motivation and Their Application in Organizations: A Risk Analysis In all enterprises whether private or state owned, motivation plays a key role in driving employees towards achieving their goals, organizational goals and to a certain extent the dreams of their nations.
There are many theories of motivation, and they mostly give a relation or influence the outcomes of employee job satisfaction.
Instead of relying on hygiene’s, the manager interested in creating a self-motivated workforce should emphasize job content or motivation factors.
Managers do this by enriching worker’s jobs so that the jobs are more challenging and by providing feedback and recognition (Dessler, Barkhuizen, Bezuidenhout, Braine and Plessis, 2011, p433).
How motivation comes about and how it leads to satisfaction is explained by process theories; theories that fall into this category include Porter-Lawler’s model and expectancy theory by Vroom.
Contemporary theories of motivation incorporate equity, control and agency theory, as well as goal setting, reinforcement, and job design theory.